Uruguay 1930

The first FIFA World Cup

FIFA’s plans for a world championship outside the confines of the Olympic Games came to fruition in 1930. Uruguay was chosen as the host nation in honour of its centenary celebrations and the Olympic gold medals of 1924 and 1928, but only four European nations made the journey by ship to South America. In the newly built Estadio Centenario in Montevideo, Uruguay won the first World Cup by beating Argentina 4-2 in the Final.

The host is chosen

Clipping from French sport daily "L'Auto" from 20 May 1929 announcing the first FIFA World Cup to be played in Montevideo, Uruguay.
Clipping from French sport daily "L'Auto" from 20 May 1929 announcing the first FIFA World Cup to be played in Montevideo, Uruguay.

The day before the 1929 World Trade Fair in Barcelona opened, FIFA held its annual congress in the city with the 23 nations gathering to appoint the host nation for the first World Cup. Six countries had expressed a desire to host the tournament, with Spain and Italy having gathered significant support, while senior figures within FIFA were hoping that Paris would emerge as the preferred choice.

The idea that the tournament would be staged in one city, as in the Olympic football tournament, had yet to be questioned. Behind the scenes, a Uruguayan diplomat called Enrique Buero had persuaded a number of Central European nations to back Montevideo. Italy, realising it had been outmanoeuvred withdrew “in order to demonstrate its feelings of sympathy with Uruguay, where so many Italians worked and played football.”

The Netherlands, Hungary, Sweden and Spain quickly followed suite and Uruguay was appointed by acclamation. The date for the tournament was set from 15 July to 15 August 1930.

In a report sent back to Uruguay, Buero stated "I must tell you that the participation of teams from Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Spain, Austria and Italy can be considered as certain. France, Belgium and Holland are probable. I think it will also be possible to include Portugal as well as the British teams.”

Over the following year Buero, who also became chairman of the World Cup organising committee, would be a very busy man trying to make that happen.

"A miraculous apparition, as if primeval forces had sprung it out from the depths of the earth."

Raúl Jude

The Centenario – a miraculous apparition

For Uruguay, a nation of 1.9 million inhabitants, seven million heads of cattle and 20 million sheep, 1930 promised to be the most momentous year in the history of the country. A whole week was to be dedicated to the centenary celebrations of independence followed by two weeks of World Cup football. The new Estadio Centenario would be the centre-piece for those celebrations. When finished Raúl Jude, the president of the Uruguay football association, referred to it as a “miraculous apparition, as if primeval forces had sprung it out from the depths of the earth.” Designed by the architects Scasso and Domato, the scale of the new stadium was impressive – Rome’s Coliseum would fit comfortably within.

The central motif was the “Torre del Homenage”, a 100-metre tower to signify 100 years of independence with nine balconies representing the nine stripes on the Uruguayan flag. It also featured representations of the wings of an aeroplane, the bow of a ship and the windows of a train carriage – the means of transport by which the teams and supporters would travel to Uruguay for the World Cup. The plane wings were perhaps a triumph of hope over expectation. Had air transport been further advanced, more European nations may well have entered, instead of being faced with a two-month round trip to South America by sea.

Friday, 13 June 1930 All aboard!

The SS Munargo in New York harbour

The Mexicans were the first of the 13 teams to start their journey to the World Cup having travelled by boat from Veracruz to Hoboken, New Jersey via Havana. On the afternoon of 13 June they boarded the SS Munargo (pictured above) and were joined by the USA team. Peru had the longest journey of the South American teams, travelling by boat from Lima to Valparaiso in Chile, and then from Santiago to Buenos Aires over the Trans-Andean railway, before the final leg by boat over the River Plate to Montevideo.

The SS Conte Verde
The SS Conte Verde

The Romanian team that gathered at Bucharest’s Gara de Nord for the 8am departure to Genoa on the morning of 17 June was perhaps the least experienced of the four European teams travelling to Uruguay, but they were in good voice and kept their fellow travellers entertained with their enthusiastic singing on the 34-hour journey.

Worried about the sea journey across the Atlantic the football association had asked to take more players in case of sea sickness as none of them had been on a boat before. Awaiting them in Genoa was an ocean liner that was to become one of the most famous, if unlikely, symbols of the first World Cup – the SS Conte Verde.

Jules Rimet and officials posing with teams on the Conte Verde on its way to Uruguay.
Jules Rimet and officials posing with teams on the Conte Verde on its way to Uruguay.

This 13-day journey across the Atlantic would be the Conte Verde’s most famous taking it from Genoa to Villefranche-sur-Mer where it would pick up the French team, FIFA’s Jules Rimet and the Hungarian Maurice Fischer as well as the World Cup trophy.

Then on to Barcelona where the Belgians were waiting, to Rio de Janeiro where the Brazilians would board and then to Montevideo.

FIFA President Jules Rimet greets the crowd while disembarking the SS Conte Verde. In the back we can see members of the French team waving Uruguayan flags.
FIFA President Jules Rimet greets the crowd while disembarking the SS Conte Verde. In the back we can see members of the French team waving Uruguayan flags.

On 1 July the Munargo docked in Montevideo in what was described by the USA delegation head Wilfred Cummings “as a heavy downpour, it being the 92nd consecutive day of rain.” He was delighted by the welcome the Americans and Mexicans were given. “Notwithstanding the rain, a very large and enthusiastic crowd cheered our arrival from the docks and packed our lane of auto travel along the streets to the Florida hotel, a battery of cameramen, cartoonists and sportswriters dogging each and every individual of our party seeking first-hand information.”

Three days after the Americans and Mexicans had arrived, the SS Conte Verde docked in Montevideo and another huge welcoming party gathered at the docks to welcome the European teams although there was considerable anger in Uruguay against those Europeans who had not made the journey.

The following evening, during a reception for the delegates of the participating teams, the now famous picture of Jules Rimet and Raúl Jude with the World Cup trophy was taken. Often attributed to after the Final, it was the only time the trophy was photographed during the entire tournament, or indeed for the next three years while it resided in Uruguay.

The tournament begins

The draw for the tournament was made at a meeting of the organising committee on Monday 7 July. In the same meeting the dates for the matches were fixed. Originally scheduled to take place from 15 July to 15 August, as recorded on the official poster, the tournament was slimmed down to just 17 days and 18 matches, kicking off on the following Sunday, 13 July.

The odd number of teams meant that there were three groups of three teams and one of four, with the winners qualifying for the semi-finals. Teams were seeded – the source of much debate - with Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay avoiding each other to “maintain the sporting interest” according to Rimet, while no decision could be made between Paraguay and the USA, so they were both selected as seeds in group 4. The European teams didn’t get a look in! They were, however, kept apart with one in each group.

The group stage

Group 1

The Estadio Centenario in Montevideo, which had been officially opened with the match Uruguay - Peru on 18 July, 100 years to the day after Uruguay became an independent nation.
The Estadio Centenario in Montevideo, which had been officially opened with the match Uruguay - Peru on 18 July, 100 years to the day after Uruguay became an independent nation.

Standings

Team MP
W D L Goals Points
Argentina 3 3 0 0 10:4 6
Chile 3 2 0 1 5:3 4
France 3 1 0 2 4:3 2
Mexico 3 0 0 3 4:13 0

 

Matches

13 July FRA 4 - 1 MEX Summary
15 July ARG 1 - 0 FRA Summary
16 July CHI 3 - 0 MEX Summary
19 July CHI 1 - 0 FRA Summary
19 July ARG 6 - 3 MEX Summary
22 July ARG 3 - 1 CHI Summary

 

Group 2

Despite being on the defense in this picture in the match agains Bolivia, Yugoslavia won the top spot of Group 2 with two wins.
Despite being on the defense in this picture in the match agains Bolivia, Yugoslavia won the top spot of Group 2 with two wins.

Standings

Team MP
W D L Goals Points
Yugoslavia 2 2 0 0 6:1 4
Brazil 2 1 0 1 5:2 2
Bolivia 2 0 0 2 0:8 0

 

Matches

14 July YUG 2 - 1 BRA Summary
17 July YUG 4 - 0 BOL Summary
20 July BRA 4 - 0 BOL Summary

 

Group 3

Uruguay captain Jose Nasazzi (arm raised) leads his team on a lap of honour after their 4-0 victory in the match against Romania, securing Uruguay's place in the semi-final.
Uruguay captain Jose Nasazzi (arm raised) leads his team on a lap of honour after their 4-0 victory in the match against Romania, securing Uruguay's place in the semi-final.

Standings

Team MP
W D L Goals Points
Uruguay 2 2 0 0 5:0 4
Romania 2 1 0 1 3:5 2
Peru 2 0 0 2 1:4 0

 

Matches

14 July ROU 3 - 1 PER Summary
18 July URU 1 - 0 PER Summary
21 July URU 4 - 0 ROU Summary

 

Group 4

The Unites States team won both games in the group stage and reached the semi-final. Their best FIFA World Cup performance to date.
The Unites States team won both games in the group stage and reached the semi-final. Their best FIFA World Cup performance to date.

Standings

Team MP
W D L Goals Points
United States 2 2 0 0 6:0 4
Paraguay 2 1 0 1 1:3 2
Belgium 2 0 0 2 0:4 0

 

Matches

13 July USA 3 - 0 BEL Summary
17 July USA 3 - 0 PAR Summary
20 July PAR 1 - 0 BEL Summary

 

Semi-finals South American domination

Argentina's Guillermo Stabile beating USA's goalkeeper Jim Douglas to score Argentina's sixth goal in the 87th minute. Two minutes later James ‘Jim’ Brown scored the only goal for the US team in the semi-final.

Press clipping announcing Argentina in the final
Press clipping announcing Argentina in the final

Saturday 26 July 1930
Agentina 6 - 1 United States

Broken bones and a bottle of chloroform

After their comprehensive wins over Paraguay and Belgium, the professionals of the USA were being touted as potential winners, not just over Argentina in the semi-final, but of the tournament as a whole. The 6-1 defeat at the hands of the Argentines would seem to have made a mockery of that, but it wasn’t quite so clear cut.

According to the head of the US delegation Wilfred Cummings in his report of the tournament, the crowd for the semi-final numbered 112,000, with everyone, fans and players alike frisked for knives and guns on entry. A military escort had ensured the teams could get through the thronging crowd outside the stadium and as usual the Americans made their way onto the pitch singing the Stein Song.

Yugoslavian goalkeeper Milovan Jaksic safely catches the ball during the semi-final between Uruguay and Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavian goalkeeper Milovan Jaksic safely catches the ball during the semi-final between Uruguay and Yugoslavia.

Sunday 27 July 1930
Uruguay 6 - 1 Yugoslavia

Uruguay into their stride

As with the semi-final the previous day, the match between Uruguay and Yugoslavia was not as clear cut as the 6-1 scoreline suggests.

The biggest crowd of the whole tournament crammed into the Centenario but were shocked into silence when Yugoslavia took an early lead. Uruguay fought back and were soon ahead, but the Yugoslavs had a goal disallowed which would have levelled the scores and they then complained bitterly that the ball had crossed the line (kicked back into touch by a policeman said some) before Peregrino Anselmo scored Uruguay’s third.

From then on it was plain sailing. All six Uruguayan goals came from crosses with Pedro Cea adding two more to the equaliser he had scored, the first of only three players to score a hat trick in a World Cup semi-final. After their timid opening game, the Uruguayans were now into their stride.

The Final

Champions of the world!

The first World Cup Final was the 97th meeting between Uruguay and Argentina. No two teams were more familiar with each other and few rivalries were more intense. Unlike in the semi-finals, however, there were considerable gaps in the stands. The fog enshrouding the River Plate had stayed stubbornly put during the night and most of the boats crossing had been forced to halt their journey and drop anchor. The boat carrying the Final referee John Langenus back from his excursion in Argentina was one of the lucky ones that managed to get through and dock in Montevideo on schedule in the morning.

Uruguay captain Jose Nasazzi (left) meets Argentina's Manuel Ferreira before the final.
Uruguay captain Jose Nasazzi (left) meets Argentina's Manuel Ferreira before the final.

Wednesday 30 July 1930

Uruguay 4 - 2 Argentina

The atmosphere before the game was tense. Luis Monti received a death threat and spectators were once again closely searched before they entered the ground.

Argentina had used more players than any other team during the finals – 21 of their 22 with only defender Edmundo Piaggio missing out – and they made two changes for the Final, Arico Suárez in for Rodolfo Orlandini and young Francisco Varallo back in the side instead of Alejandro Scopelli.

Uruguay made just one change. Peregrino Anselmo excused himself with an injury – or was it nerves – so in came ‘Manco’ Castro. The first dispute Langenus had to deal with was the ball for the game with both sides preferring their own. Both had a half each.

 

Members of the the Uruguayan team celebrate winning the first ever World Cup Final against rivals Argentina.
Members of the the Uruguayan team celebrate winning the first ever World Cup Final against rivals Argentina.

Uruguay took an early lead with the honour of scoring the first-ever World Cup Final goal falling to Pablo Dorado. But by half-time Argentina were 2-1 up, the equaliser came from Peucelle while the second goal was scored by Guillermo Stabile, his eighth of the tournament, though Uruguay claimed offside.

In the second half Uruguay switched tactics. The short passing and clever patterns weaved in the first half were replaced by a more direct game in the second. Once again Cea scored an important equaliser while Santos Iriarte scored the winner from preposterously long range.

Varallo, who would go on to be the longest lived of all the players at the first World Cup, hit a post before Castro scored in the last minute to make sure for the hosts.

Thursday 31 July 1930

The Duillio sets sail

The day after the Final was declared a public holiday and the celebrations which had continued throughout the night continued throughout the day. Raúl Jude received a letter of congratulation from FIFA president Jules Rimet:

“My dear President. The 'World Cup' tournament ends in apotheosis. My thoughts at this hour evoke the day in 1924, at Colombes which are similar to the ones we have just experienced, and where, for the first time, the Uruguayan team was crowned world champion.

As today, an unexpected sunshine dominated the party as the flag of the Oriental Republic was hoisted to the top of the Olympic flagpole amidst the applause of an equally joyful and enthusiastic crowd. The continuation of the success has made the history of your national team a true epic: it authorises you to engrave on your emblems the three names - Colombes, Amsterdam and Montevideo - as the names of the great victories.”

Early in the morning some of the teams set off for home although the Belgian, French and Romanian players were kept waiting on the quay as the SS Duillio arrived a day late full of disappointed Argentine fans who had missed the game due to the fog.

If Jules Rimet had hoped that the medals made by Abel Lafleur would reach Montevideo before the end of the tournament, he was to be disappointed. Indeed, it wasn’t until three and a half months later that Enrique Buero brought them in person from Paris to Montevideo.

They were finally presented to the players at a ceremony at the headquarters of the Uruguayan football association on 11 November. It was the final act as the curtain came down on the first World Cup.

Portrait of FIFA President Jules Rimet (FRA) ca. 1919.
Portrait of FIFA President Jules Rimet (FRA) ca. 1919.

The legacy of Jules Rimet

It hadn’t been the easiest of births and it certainly hadn’t been a financial bonanza – that would come later. But the 1930 World Cup was a significant turning point in the history of association football. First and foremost, it proved that a world championship could be staged outside of the confines of the Olympic Games. Football was the first to try and it didn’t break FIFA as many thought it might.

Just as importantly it set in motion the process of breaking down the barriers between the different classes of players – amateurs, professionals and those in-between. There were no professionals at the 1930 World Cup apart from the Americans, but that was not the point. The dogma that was to divide sport for decades to come, no longer defined football. There were to be no barriers to entry at the World Cup, something that the devoutly amateur IOC would not fully confront at the Olympics for another half century.

And that, in short, was the genius - and the legacy - of Jules Rimet.

1930 FIFA World Cup Uruguay™

World's Cup Uruguay 1930